When nomads lived on Yenisei they called their leader adjo, then they began to call him biy. And in the 19th century biy was replaced by manap. Honorary title of manap was like Russian duke. They were the best people from commons, those who stood out, the bravest and wisest, who gathered the people and carried about them. This status did not pass from father to a son; man had to serve it with his acts - worrying about well-being of the tribe. All decisions of the authorities were based on adat, and there were strict system of punishments and fines for crimes. For instance, kun (payment for man killing) must be paid not only by murderer himself, but by his whole clan. For example, for killing a man murder had to pay 300 horses, for killing a woman one had to pay 150 horses, for man's eye injuring- 150 horses and for woman's - 75 horses. And if person couldn't pay this penalty, all his clan had to pay it. All people of one tribe paid taxes without any arguing - they knew that the richer the tribe the more famous it will be. The taxes were taken for burials ceremonies, big holidays or to pay ransom for a bride. All of these examples show the importance of tribal traditions and existing of the tribe as one big family.
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